Mark 12:38-44 | The Consequences of False Teachers

August 16, 2021
Book: Mark
Series: Mark

Watch The Online Sermon: 

Today, we see Jesus turn from teaching the Scribes to teaching the crowds. 
But Jesus doesn’t just teach the crowds today; he warns of their hypocrisy. 
He alerts them to the very people who were supposed to shepherd and care for them. 
Matthew 23 has an entire chapter on what Mark covers in three verses. 
So we are going to get the abridged version of Jesus’ teaching today from Mark. 
There is also a surprising ending to this narrative. 
Who and what is the surprise ending? Let’s find out!

Listen to the Live Sunday Sermon:

Full Sermon Transcript

Rev. Dustin Daniels | River Bible Church
Mark 12:38-44 | The Consequences of False Teachers
August 15, 2021

WELCOME:
Please turn your Bibles to Mark 12:38-44
Bibles in back—our gift to you.

REVIEW:
Last Sunday, we watched Jesus turn the tables on the Scribes and the Pharisees.
The religious leaders had run out of options trying to trick Jesus into some type of heresy.
And now Jesus had a question of His own for them.
His question dealt with His own identity.
As you read through the Gospels, you’ll notice that Jesus’ favorite title for Himself was “the Son of Man.”
That title refers to His own humanity.
Last week, we also learned about another title Jesus had, which is “the Messiah.”
The Messiah means “anointed one.”
It’s rendered in Greek as “Christos.”—which is where we get Christ.
Christ is not the last name of Jesus—It’s actually His title.

KEYPOINT:
The Messiah is a man who God has anointed to deliver the Jews from out of political oppression.
The Messiah is a political revolutionary for the Jews.
But it was through Jesus’ teaching last week that we learned how He is not only the Son of Man—Jesus is not only the Messiah either.
Just as importantly, we learned that Jesus is also the Son of God.
Jesus—“God Saves”
Christ—“The Anointed”
Jesus Christ—“God Saves through His anointed.”
This is the reason Jesus says,
cf. John 14:6— Jesus told him, “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.
Jesus says that He is the only way to Heaven because He is the only one who can satisfy God’s wrath on sin.
God’s wrath on sin is called propitiation.
In other words, Jesus did what no one else can do.
No mere mortal can satisfy God the Father’s righteous anger for sin.
Jesus is “The God-Man.”
Meaning, He is truly God and truly man.

There are two reasons that Jesus had to be both God and man:
1) Only God Himself can make the propitiation,
2) Only man can make the satisfaction.
That is why the God-Man—Jesus Christ is the only way to be saved.
Last week’s Scripture passage was Jesus’ last public teaching.
Unfortunately, the Scribes and the Pharisees still didn’t get it.
That’s a review from last week.
INTRODUCTION:
Today, we see Jesus turn from teaching the Scribes to teaching the crowds.
But Jesus doesn’t just teach the crowds today; he warns of their hypocrisy.
He alerts them to the very people who were supposed to shepherd and care for them.
He cautions them to be on guard against the Scribes and Pharisees.
Matthew 23 has an entire chapter on what Mark covers in three verses.
So we are going to get the abridged version of Jesus’ teaching today from Mark.
There is also a surprising ending to this narrative.
Jesus provides a living example of the consequences of false teachers.
Who and what is the surprise ending? Let’s find out!
*Please stand for the reading and honoring of God’s Word.*

SCRIPTURE: Mark 12:38-44 CSB
Mark 12:38— He also said in his teaching, “Beware of the scribes, who want to go around in long robes and who want greetings in the marketplaces,
Mark 12:39— the best seats in the synagogues, and the places of honor at banquets.
Mark 12:40— They devour widows’ houses and say long prayers just for show. These will receive harsher judgment.”
Mark 12:41— Sitting across from the temple treasury, he watched how the crowd dropped money into the treasury. Many rich people were putting in large sums.
Mark 12:42— Then a poor widow came and dropped in two tiny coins worth very little.
Mark 12:43— Summoning his disciples, he said to them, “Truly I tell you, this poor widow has put more into the treasury than all the others.
Mark 12:44— For they all gave out of their surplus, but she out of her poverty has put in everything she had—all she had to live on.”

PRAY:
EXEGESIS:
Mark 12:38— Jesus also said in his teaching, “Beware of the scribes, who want to go around in long robes and who want greetings in the marketplaces,
Notice Jesus’ first word in His teaching, “Beware.”
You better pay attention and observe the Scribes.
In fact, be vigilant.
You better be on the lookout for the Scribes.
A Scribe is a man who has his Ph.D. in OT studies.
But a scribe is a lawyer regarding ordinary legal matters as well.
The Scribes handled the legal matters for the Jews, similar to how we have lawyers today.
“Beware of the scribes, who want to go around in long robes and who want greetings in the marketplaces,
Scribes were easily identifiable because they wore something like a white graduation gown.
It was a long white linen robe with white fringe.
They wore this gown on purpose.
It was a visible representation of their knowledge.
The way they dressed communicated to the ordinary people of Israel that they were the elite—they were special and privileged.
They were chosen by God.
It just so happens that these men are men of wealth, power, and prestige.
Now, It’s not really that important what these robes were made of.
What is important is why they wore them.
And the reason why they wore them is to set themselves apart from the crowd.
They dressed like this to have power over others.
This is fascinating. As we have read through the Gospel of Mark, we have learned that Jesus’ authority is connected and demonstrated by his teaching.
cf. Mark 1:22—They were astonished at his teaching because he was teaching them as one who had authority and not like the scribes.
But here, we see that the Scribes’ authority is connected to their clothing.
They wanted all eyes on them.
The Scribe’s authority came from their clothing, Jesus’ authority came from His teaching.
“Beware of the scribes, who want to go around in long robes and who want greetings in the marketplaces,
The Scribes had this strong desire—for people to acknowledge them.
Pause…If we fast forward 2,000 years—has anything changed in our day?
Has this desire for false teachers to want people to notice them gone away?
To applaud them, to celebrate them, and to make them celebrates…has this gone away?
No, not the heart issue—the motive—has not gone away.
The only thing that has changed is the clothing itself.
Turn on the TV, and you’ll see a TV Evangelist in an Armani suit with gold rings and a pair of shoes that cost more than your car.
Today we call it the “prosperity gospel”—or “name it and claim it theology.”
The false teachers of today simply wear a different garb.
I was watching a documentary on this thing called the “Emerging Church.”
It was so funny to see the difference between the conservative preachers vs. the prosperity pulpiteers.
The conservative preachers had a button-up shirt with a coat on.
None of them wore any makeup for this video shoot, and they looked horrible.
But, you get to the prosperity guys…whew! They looked like a million bucks.
The dichotomy between what Jesus is showing us here is so interesting.
KEYPOINT 1:
Church history has shown us that the more flamboyant a religious man dresses, and the more theatrical his sermons are—the less he has to say.
And people still fall for it. Why?
Because of the image.
In other words, the thought is that the more money this preacher has, the more godlier he must be.
Because people think… God has “blessed him.”
And who doesn’t want to be blessed by God in this way?
We think to ourselves; I want what he has. So I’m going to do what he says.
And the people who watch these guys (and gals—women preachers: that’s another sermon for another day) want to be just like them.
Mark 12:38— … who want greetings in the marketplaces,
When Scribes walked through the marketplace, aka, the grocery store, people would rise to their feet to pay their respects, greeting them with the title, “Rabbi.”
Rabbi is equivalent to Dr. So and So today.
And Jesus says they love that kind of attention.
They thrive on it. They crave it.
Question: What would that do to your ego?
If everywhere you went, people stood up to greet you and kiss your ring.
Every time you went to work, people would applaud you.
You, like them, would very quickly start to think how special you are.
And that was the attitude of the Scribes.

Jesus continues…
Mark 12:39— the best seats in the synagogues, and the places of honor at banquets.
The best seats in the synagogues refer to a bench at the front of the synagogue.
This bench faced the congregation.
These benches were called “first seats” or “Moses’ Seat.”
This seat was reserved for the VIP’s and the VIPs loved sitting there.
It was a place that the congregation could see them.
We have the same concept when a university professor “chairs” a department.
Some churches still have these kinds of seats on the stage.
Some of them are pretty scary looking, because they look like thrones.
and the places of honor at banquets.
When people had parties, they would invite a Scribe, and he would sit at the place of honor—usually to the right or left of the host.
Mark 12:40— They devour widows’ houses and say long prayers just for show. These will receive harsher judgment.”
As we have learned over the past sixty sermons in the Gospel of Mark,
Jesus has repeatedly taught us that the Scribes and the Pharisees are the false teachers of Israel.
And we see here in Jesus’ last public sermon, that he has zero tolerance for false teachers.
Pause—“Does the church have a zero tolerance for false teachers today?”
Matthew’s Gospel goes into great detail on condemning and rejecting these Scribes and Pharisees.
In Matthew 23:1-36, Jesus says to these men, “woe to you.”
A woe is a groan or wail because of the eternal punishment that awaits false teachers.
This is not new.
Jesus follows an OT pattern in Isaiah 5:8-23 and Habakkuk 2:6-20
What’s all this groaning and wailing mean?
KEYPOINT 2:
When it comes to abuse— the most tragic is spiritual abuse.
I have talked to a lot of people who have been abused.
Physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse…as tragic as those things are…
Nothing is more tragic than spiritual abuse.
Why? Because you’re messing around with someone’s physical provisions AND their eternal destiny.
Jesus gives us an example in verse 40.

Mark 12:40— They devour widows’ houses and say long prayers just for show. These will receive harsher judgment.”
How did the Scribes devour a widow’s home?
One of the duties of a Scribe was to come alongside widows in their estate planning and financial needs.
Unfortunately, the Scribes would take advantage of the widow.
The Scribes would convince the widows that their money and property should be given to his ministry or the Temple.
Regardless of what the widow did, the Scribe would gain personally.
Jesus says, “They devour widows’ houses.”
Devouring is a term of oppression.
It’s the picture of eating something up— as fast as you can.
The picture here is greed.
The Scribe would eventually seize her home when she could not pay her debts and literally kick her to the street to die in destitution.
What is described in verse 40 is not a few isolated cases.
Jesus reveals an entire set of legal practices where the Scribes would foreclose the mortgage on a widow’s home.
It was perfectly legal and yet demonic.

In the first century, devouring widows’ homes was just as acceptable as it is today by false teachers.
The false teachers of today, however, are much more wealthy because of their Internet presence.
Not only are they peddling a demonic doctrine far and wide, but the Internet-based ministries give them the sense that they are untouchable.
And for the most part, they are. Have you ever tried to get a famous Internet preacher on the phone to pray for you and your family?
…say long prayers just for show.
Mark’s Gospel doesn’t say specifically, but it seems by the words of Jesus, that they may have charged widows for legal advice or charged for prayers on her behalf.
Notice here that there is a connection between long prayers and greed.
In other words, you “Gotta pay to pray.”
These will receive harsher judgment.”
Notice, not just judgment. Not just a guilty verdict. But a much more severe punishment.
KJV—“Greater Damnation.”
There is a difference in the severity of punishment for the crimes committed in our criminal justice system.
Evidently, there are different levels of punishment in hell as well.

So don’t miss this; the punishment for these Scribes will be more severe.
As a Believer, have you ever been severely disciplined by God? Not fun.
As an Unbeliever, punished by God? Even less fun.
There’s a big difference between being disciplined as a child of God vs. being punished by God as a lawbreaker.
These Scribes will be stripped of all their worldly honor, and they will have to endure the wrath of God in a very real place called hell for eternity.
Moving on…
Mark 12:41— Sitting across from the temple treasury, he watched how the crowd dropped money into the treasury. Many rich people were putting in large sums.
Verse 41 is a transition verse.
Jesus is taking a break from teaching.
This has been a very long Wednesday for Jesus.
Evidently, He’s decided to do some people-watching on his break.
Don’t you love the realness, the humanity, the curiosity of Jesus?
Have you ever watched people at the mall or in an airport?
Entertaining, isn’t it?
That’s what Jesus is doing.
He’s eating lunch, having a snack, resting alone…watching people.
Jesus has placed himself in view of the temple treasury.
The temple treasury—precisely what it sounds like.
It’s the location where you give your money to the Temple.
The temple treasury was located in what was called “the court of women.”
Both men and women were allowed in this part of the Temple.
People would place their offerings in one of thirteen trumpet-shaped boxes.
These boxes were called Shôphār—picture a ram’s horn.
Each Shôphār had an inscription on it to what your money would be used for.
Because it was the Passover, there were a lot of people giving.
There’s lots of traffic; there’s lots going on.
Now, giving money to the Temple is not new.
The practice of giving gifts was established by God shortly after God brought the Israelites out of Egypt.
In fact, God commanded the people to give so that they could build the very first Temple, which was a large tent called the tabernacle (Ex. 25:1–8)
Later, God gave the people instructions for tithing—giving your first ten percent to God. (Malachi 3:7-12)
Back to…
Mark 12:41— …Many rich people were putting in large sums.

Apparently, the collection boxes were shaped like a ram’s horn for two reasons.
It made it hard to steal the money.
It amplified the sound when you dropped your coins in.
Sooo, when rich people dropped all their coins in, it made quite the commotion for everyone to take notice.
Picture all the noise at the casino.
Mark 12:42— Then a poor widow came and dropped in two tiny coins worth very little.
Evidently, Jesus is not impressed with all the racket from rich people.
Have you learned throughout Mark’s Gospel that Jesus is not impressed with rich people… at all?
But Jesus notices a “poor widow.”
How does Jesus know that this particular woman is a poor widow?
Widows wore a particular type of clothing to identify themselves as widows. (Genesis 38:14).
She gives two lepta.
Lepta is the smallest coinage in Palestine. These coins are made of copper.

If you convert a lepta to American currency, each lepton was worth 7/10 of a penny each.
Obviously, this widow is not just poor, but destitute.
This woman is homeless. She has to beg to live.
That’s the picture.
Compared to the rich, she didn’t want to be noticed.
She’s ashamed of what she has become.
And yet, she has no idea that the Son of Man and the Son of God is watching her.
Wow. This is the most famous donation in history.
Mark 12:43— Summoning his disciples, he said to them, “Truly I tell you, this poor widow has put more into the treasury than all the others.
Mark 12:44— For they all gave out of their surplus, but she out of her poverty has put in everything she had—all she had to live on.”
This text is a prosperity preacher’s dream verse.
Can’t you hear the name it and claim it folks?
Let me show you how easy it is to take a verse like this out of context.
“She put in two copper coins—all that she had—those coins would have bought her last meal. But she decided to trust God and not lean on her own understanding.”
Was it wise for the widow to give all that she had? Yes, because she loved God with all of her heart, mind, soul, and her strength. She is a living example of the Great Commandment. You too should do the same thing to prove your love to God.”

All the others gave what they’ll never miss; She made a sacrifice. And you, too, can be a living sacrifice for the Lord. She knew that if she sowed sparingly, she would reap sparingly.

Dear friends, that’s spiritual abuse.
It’s incredible how Jesus had zero tolerance for false teachers, but today’s false church adores them.
Question: Is this passage about finances?
Is it about tithing?
We have to ask this question because Jesus doesn’t elaborate on finances, does He?
No, he simply makes a profound observation.
Please note, we can’t speak where Jesus doesn’t elaborate.
There are several clear passages on giving and tithing.
Let me give you the clearest passage in NT Scripture on giving—2 Corinthians 9:7
This passage today is not one of them.
It’s very dangerous to interpret this widow’s giving as a lesson for your personal stewardship.
It’s even more dangerous to listen to someone who teaches that it is.
So let’s back up.
What’s Jesus’ point, by calling all the Disciples to watch this widow give all she had to the Temple?
What has the overall context been since Mark chapter 11?
False teachers. We’ve been talking about these guys for the past two months.
And the first word out of Jesus’ mouth today was, “beware.”
In Matthew’s parallel account, Jesus calls the Scribes and Pharisees “hypocrites” seven times.
We also learned in verse 40 that these false teachers devour widow’s homes.
Do you truly think that it’s a coincidence that Jesus notices a homeless widow giving two copper coins to the Temple right after he taught the crowd how Scribes devour widow’s homes?
Dear friends, this is not a lesson on tithing.
This widow is not some super saint that is a model for us all.
We know nothing about her faith because the Scripture doesn’t tell us.

The moral of this story is that this widow is a living consequence of the hypocrisy and greed of the false teachers that Jesus warned the crowd about in verse 38.

She is a tragic example of how corrupted the religious system had become.
We should not read verses 43 and 44 in excitement…
Mark 12:43— Summoning his disciples, he said to them, “Truly I tell you, this poor widow has put more into the treasury than all the others.
Mark 12:44— For they all gave out of their surplus, but she out of her poverty has put in everything she had—all she had to live on.”
No, verses 43 and 44 should be read with sorrow and grief because Jesus taught us how the Scribes are spiritual robbers of the worst kind.

Mark 12:43— Summoning his disciples, he said to them, “Truly I tell you, this poor widow has put more into the treasury than all the others.
Mark 12:44— For they all gave out of their surplus, but she out of her poverty has put in everything she had—all she had to live on.”
Why is this all she had to live on—because she had no surplus.
The false teachers devoured her.
They ate her up, kicked her out of her own home, and left her out to die.
This narrative is not a fairy tale.
This story ends on a tragic note.
Now, let’s back up.
Let’s give the widow the benefit of the doubt.
Let’s say she had given her life to God.
Because if she didn’t, we could make a cast that she more than likely would not be at the Temple—fair enough.
The reason that this narrative is tragic, is because there is still no hope for her within that religious system.
The Temple was not a place for people to worship God; it had become a place for religious heretics to steal from widows.
Everyone thought that the Scribes and Pharisees were models of people who loved God.

They looked good on the outside.
But Jesus saw through their religious show.
They didn’t love God. They loved themselves.
They loved money. They loved power.
Because if they loved God, they would have repented and worshipped Jesus.

PREACH:
The theme of today’s Scripture passage is Church leadership—Ecclesiology.
Jesus despised false teachers…and so should you.
You should also have zero tolerance for false teachers.
The Apostle James gives a warning to those who want to teach in the Church.
cf. James 3:1—Not many should become teachers, my brothers, because you know that we will receive a stricter judgment.
cf. 1 Timothy 1:7—They want to be teachers of the law, although they don’t understand what they are saying or what they are insisting on.
I am absolutely convinced that what many people call “church” today is not a church at all.
What many people see on TV or social media is actually a perverted version of the Gospel.
It’s not a worship service.

What it is—is a demonic circus— and it’s appalling.
I watch these video clips from so-called pastors with their so-called churches, and at first, I get mad.
I get mad at the preacher.
And then I get sad. I’m sad for those sitting in the congregation.
So the question before us today, after reading today’s text, is this—
How do you know a true church from a false one?
How do spot a wolf from a true under-shepherd?
What is the difference between a prosperity pulpiteer from a true preacher who has been called by God?
I have five things I want to share with you.
Before I do that, I want to address some of my own Ecclesiology for River Bible Church.
I want to give you some insight into why I do the things I do from the pulpit week in and week out.
We learned that Jesus railed against the Scribes for wanting titles.
Yes, I have a title. My title is Rev.
All that means is that I have gone through the formal process of being licensed and ordained as a minister of the Gospel.

In other words, I am not a self-proclaimed pastor.
I’ve been to seminary and formally educated as well.
Here’s the difference between my title and a Scribe’s title—I don’t make anyone call me anything other than my first name.
My name is Dustin, and that’s what I would like you to call me.
I’ve worked very hard from day one at that.
Secondly, I prefer a wood pulpit to preach form.
Why? Because it’s biblical—Nehemiah 8:4—Ezra the scribe stood at a wooden podium which they had made for the purpose.
I prefer to teach sitting down and to preach standing up.
Why? Because Jesus sat down to teach. (Mark 9:35).
I also sit down because I don’t want any attention drawn to me personally.
This is not a show—this is the Word of God—and it’s Him that I want your attention drawn to.
When it comes to music, we choose our songs for one purpose—to worship God.
The band is to be as invisible as possible.
They are to lead us into the presence of God as we open the Word of God together.
I’ve asked the band not to move during prayer.
Prayer is not a transition piece for everyone to get in place.
Prayer is prayer—we are speaking to a Holy God.
So those are just a few examples as to why we do the things that we do.
We do the things that are Biblical to do—and will push back on anything that comes from the world.
Now, Let me give you five things to consider when it comes to false teachers.
There are more, but these five seem fitting to us here in the Verde Valley.

False teachers, please man and not God.
False teachers want you to be happy, while true Shepherds want you to be holy.
False teachers cater to the congregations every whim.
A true Shepherd has a vision from God and says “no” to everyone and everything that doesn’t fall in line with God’s vision—no matter the cost.
False teachers make the Church and the worship service just like the world.
A true Shepherd pushes back on anything that resembles the world to protect his sheep and protect the reverence of the worship service.
False teachers teach their own opinions and use worldly sources rather than Bible.
False Teachers teach very little Bible, if they do at all, while True Shepherds are captivated, enthralled, and delighted with the Bible.
False teachers don’t ever talk about man’s depravity, man’s sin, man’s helplessness, God’s wrath, or hell.
A True Shepherd preaches on all these things with clarity, confidence, passion, and purity.
A False Teacher doesn’t preach the Gospel.
He gives a spiritualized Ted Talk by focusing on personal happiness, comfort, finances, and safety.
A False Teacher doesn’t focus on biblical doctrine.
He doesn’t care what God has to say about God.
He’s not interested in how God has revealed Himself to mankind through the Bible.
A True Shepherd carefully and exegetically teaches the right ways of God as revealed in Scripture.

A False Teacher avoids the Gospel.
A true Shepherd repeatedly and consistently preaches how you must repent from your sin and believe that Jesus was raised from the dead.

A False Teacher avoids Evangelism.
A False Teachers prefers to steal people from other churches.
It’s called “church transfer growth.”
A True Shepherd longs and loves to see lost people saved.
A True Church has evangelism as the central part of its DNA.
So yes, dear friends, there are many consequences of False Teachers.
My prayer for you is that as you continue to minister to the Verde Valley, as you continue presenting the 3 Circles, as you continue praying for your friends and neighbors inviting them to Church and handing out the invite cards and Bibles—
That this text will give you a humble confidence to share with them that whatever lousy experience they’ve previously had at church—
That there have always and will always be people who are false teachers who will try to control you and manipulate you for their own gain.
We’ve all been hurt by the church.
But no one has been more hurt by the church than Jesus.
In the next 24 hours, Jesus will be betrayed by one of his closest friends and then put to death by these religious leaders.
So dear friends, let’s continue to do our part this week and then watch Jesus do His.

PRAYER ROOM:
PRAYER:

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
PREACHING BIBLE:
Christian Standard Bible. Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers, 2020.
BIBLES:
The Apostolic Bible Polygot. edited by Charles Van der Pool. Newport, OR: The Apostolic Press, 2013.
American Standard Version. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1995.
The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles, 2016.
The Holy Bible: King James Version. Electronic Edition of the 1900 Authorized Version. Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 2009.
Legacy Standard Bible. Irvine, Ca: Steadfast Bibles, 2021.
New American Standard Bible: 1995 Update. La Habra, CA: The Lockman Foundation, 1995.
The New King James Version. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1982.
PARAPHRASE BIBLES: (Used as Commentaries)
Biblical Studies Press. The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible. Biblical Studies Press, 2005.
Peterson, Eugene H. The Message: The Bible in Contemporary Language. Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 2005.
The New International Version. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2011.
The Everyday Bible: New Century Version. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, Inc., 2005.
Tyndale House Publishers. Holy Bible: New Living Translation. Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 2015.

GOD’S WORD Translation. Grand Rapids: Baker Publishing Group, 1995.
COMMENTARIES:
Blight, Richard C. An Exegetical Summary of Mark 9–16. Exegetical Summaries. Dallas, TX: SIL International, 2014.
Blum, Edwin A., and Trevin Wax, eds. CSB Study Bible: Notes. Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers, 2017.
Boice, James Montgomery. The Gospel of Matthew. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2001.
Cross, F. L., and Elizabeth A. Livingstone, eds. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Crossway Bibles. The ESV Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles, 2008.
Edwards, James R. The Gospel according to Mark. The Pillar New Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI; Leicester, England: Eerdmans; Apollos, 2002.
Fruchtenbaum, Arnold G. Yeshua: The Life of Messiah from a Messianic Jewish Perspective. Vol. 2. San Antonio, TX: Ariel, 2017.
Gaebelein, Frank E., D. A. Carson, Walter W. Wessel, and Walter L. Liefeld. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Matthew, Mark, Luke. Vol. 8. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1984.
Garland, David E. Mark. The N.I.V. Application Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1996.
Hiebert, D. Edmond. The Gospel of Mark: An Expositional Commentary. Greenville, SC: Bob Jones University Press, 1994.
Hughes, R. Kent. Mark: Jesus, Servant and Savior. Preaching the Word. Westchester, IL: Crossway Books, 1989.

Kernaghan, Ronald J. Mark. The IVP New Testament Commentary Series. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2007.
MacArthur, John. Mark 9–16. MacArthur New Testament Commentary. Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers, 2015.
McGee, J. Vernon. Thru the Bible. Vol. IV. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1982.
Myers, Allen C. The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1987.
Osborne, Grant R. Mark. Edited by Mark L. Strauss and John H. Walton. Teach the Text Commentary Series. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2014.
Sproul, R. C. Mark. First Edition. St. Andrew’s Expositional Commentary. Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust, 2011.
DICTIONARIES | ENCYCLOPEDIAS:
Caldecott, W. Shaw. “Treasury (of Temple).” Edited by James Orr, John L. Nuelsen, Edgar Y. Mullins, and Morris O. Evans. The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia. Chicago: The Howard-Severance Company, 1915.

Davies, T. Witton. “TREASURY (OF TEMPLE).” Edited by James Hastings, John A. Selbie, A. B. Davidson, S. R. Driver, and H. B. Swete. A Dictionary of the Bible: Dealing with Its Language, Literature, and Contents Including the Biblical Theology. New York; Edinburgh: Charles Scribner’s Sons; T. & T. Clark, 1911–1912.

Weights & Measures Converter. Bellingham, WA: Faithlife, 2014.

MEDIA | SERMONS:
https://www.gty.org/library/sermons-library/2360/the-characteristics-of-false-spiritual-leaders-part-1
https://dentonbible.org/sermon/the-autopsy-of-hypocrisy/

7 Sure Marks of a False Teacher

The Nine Marks

 

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